All available version of the game itself are listed on
The jar file for a specific version is located at
Some information on how to properly run said jar are available at
The libraries which can be used for all minecraft versions and are downloaded by the launcher are located at
The following files are downloaded from this location:
The latter is available for the following operating systems:
The game itself downloads further resources from
A list of all available resources is available as an XML file at the address above.